Proportional Solenoid Valve- How They Work?

Proportional Solenoid Valve

The solenoid valves actually convert the electrical force into mechanical work. There are certain parts of the proportioning solenoid valve like the coil, the armature(plunger), springs, and small orifices. It is the motion of the coil and armature which allow the inward and outward motion of the liquid and gasses. 

You need to understand the Proportional Flow Control Valve various portions and their relative motion to learn the working of the valves. It is the corresponding movement of the spring and the coil, which control the flow of the liquid in or out of the solenoid flow valve.

The solenoid valves and its functionality are discussed below: 

The Major Parts of the Solenoid Valves:

You need to learn the functionality of the various parts of the solenoid flow control valves to understand the working principle of the valves:

The Coil:

The coil of the proportioning solenoid valve is made of copper and produces electromagnetic force. The electromagnetic forces cause the coil to revolve around the iron plunger. When the coil is revolving exactly around the armature, it opens up the small orifice of the solenoid valves.

The Armature(Iron Plunger): 

The armature(Iron Plunger) is the rod of iron that changes the direction of the coil. The coil of the solenoid proportional valve is pushed by the spring in the closing position to close the opening of the solenoid operated valve. The coil revolves around the iron plunger to produce electromagnetic force.

The Spring of the Solenoid Valves:

The Spring of the solenoid valves helps in the opening and closing of the small orifice. When the electromagnetic force is greater than the spring force, then the proportioning solenoid valve opens up and vice versa. The relative motion of the coil and the spring is opposite to each other, when the spring force is greater than the solenoid valves remain in the closing position. 

Types of Solenoid Valves:

There are two major types of solenoid valves and the difference in their working pattern.

  • Direct-acting solenoid valves
  • The pilot operating solenoid valves

Direct-Acting Solenoid Valves:

The Direct-acting solenoid valves are opened and closed by the direct command of the users. These valves are not pressure differential and these are operated by direct control. This is the main reason, more electrical power is required to operate the Direct-acting solenoid valve.

The Pilot Operating Solenoid Valves:

The pilot operating solenoid valves are pressure sensitive and these are going to open and close to the difference in the pressure. This is the main reason these solenoid valve flow control use less electrical power.


The solenoid valves are going to work by the relative movement of the coil, iron plunger, and spring. When the electrical force becomes greater than the spring force. Then the solenoid valve controller is going to open, on the other hand when the spring force is greater than the electrical force then the spring would remain in the closing position.

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