The Most Important Parts of a Diesel Engine and Their Functions
Diesel engines are used in a wide variety of heavy-duty trucks and equipment, and they’re perfect for those roles. Diesel engines provide enough power for almost any use, are often simpler to work on than gas engines, and can last for a very long time with proper care. Equipment owners can read on to find out about the most important parts of a diesel engine and their functions to see what makes them such a good fit for heavy-duty applications.
Cylinder blocks serve as the housing for many vital components of a diesel engine. They’re generally made from single pieces of cast iron and provide support for coolant and oil lines, the camshaft bearings, the crankshaft and, of course, the cylinders.
Every engine’s cylinder block features a cylinder liner that provides a smooth surface for piston motion, a casing called a water jacket that assists with the cooling process, and holes called oil feed lines that transfer oil to the crankcase. Every diesel engine relies on its cylinder block for structure and support, so it’s certainly one of the most vital components.
Pistons and Piston Rings
Pistons are some of the most important caterpillar engine parts because they generate the energy required to get the whole system moving. They’re typically made out of lightweight metals like aluminum to facilitate easy movement, which is what converts the gasses taken in from the engine’s combustion process into mechanical energy. The gas enters the piston, the movement of which pressurizes it. This, in turn, helps to create larger explosions during the combustion process to produce more power.
An engine’s pistons are fragile compared to the cylinder block. If they come into contact with parts of the cylinder they shouldn’t touch, it can cause damage to both the pistons and the engine. Multiple piston rings support the piston and keep it moving in its proper path. They include:
- Compression rings between the piston wall and the cylinder liner maintain compression.
- Oil rings below the compression ring prevent engine oil from entering the chamber.
- Each piston also features a piston pin that connects it to the connecting rod. The piston pin acts as a hinge and is essential to this vital engine component’s function.
The pistons in a diesel engine slide in and out of circular holes called cylinder liners. The liners work to redistribute gas and fuel in carefully calibrated amounts to avoid overloading the engine. Most diesel motors feature what are known as wet sleeves—liners that are coated with engine coolant to prevent them from overheating.
A diesel engine’s crankshaft is responsible for converting the pistons’ linear motion into rotational movement. This large piece of forged steel connects to crankpins and connecting rods, which help to keep the pistons moving. The crankshaft usually has multiple parts connected to it, including a crank pink, a crank journal, and a counterweight. The crank journal and pin connect to the ends of the connecting rods, while the counterweight offsets balance to the crankshaft while the pistons and connecting rods are in motion.
The connecting rod connects the pistons to the crankshaft. The sturdy metal typically has boring marks to guide oil through the cylinders and connect pieces properly. These vital components help to keep things moving inside the engine and provide lubrication at the same time, making them very important to maintain proper function.
Cylinder heads can be found on top of the engine block and perform several essential functions in modern direct-injection diesel engines. First, they bring charge air to the cylinder and exhaust gas out. Second, they seal the combustion gasses and maintain the right temperatures. Third, they provide a mounting for the fuel injector, which releases a carefully calibrated mist of fuel into the combustion chamber to cause ignition.
The head gasket lies between a diesel engine’s cylinder heads and the engine block. This crucial component acts like a shield that prevents the cylinders from coming into contact with liquid, which can result in a failure to start. Because of the vital protective role they play, head gaskets often sustain damage during normal engine operation. They are prone to warping as a result of exposure to both hot and cold temperatures. Thankfully, head gaskets can be replaced by skilled mechanics.
An engine’s flywheel is usually composed of a primary and secondary wheel attached to one end of the crankshaft. The flywheel acts in multiple ways to keep the engine running. Most importantly, it uses inertia to counterbalance the movements of the pistons and crankshaft, which can reduce what would otherwise be damaging vibrations in the engine. The same action helps to minimize engine noise. While diesel engines are still very loud, they would be louder without properly functioning flywheels.
Crankcase and Oil Pan
The crankcase is an engine component that helps to counterbalance shifts in weight from moving parts and protect the crankshaft. This vital part can be found at the bottom of the crankshaft and cylinder block, where it also directs returning oil down into the oil pan. Large engines sometimes have multiple oil pans that split off to store the runoff in different areas. Saving and collecting it prevents leaks and stops the oil from reaching other moving parts of the engine where it could cause performance losses and permanent damage.
The air intake system in a diesel engine usually consists of either a turbocharger or a supercharger. The supercharger or turbocharger helps the engine produce more power from less fuel.
The Importance of Buying Quality Engine Parts
Diesel engines can often run for a million miles or more with proper care, but they may need occasional part replacements or even full rebuilds. When that’s the case, equipment owners and mechanics need to purchase high-quality parts and components. If money is an issue, try looking for aftermarket parts from reputable vendors. They can cost as much as 30-40% less than OEM parts but meet the same quality standards.